Scientists at the University of California at Berkeley (USA), have solved a complex problem in quantum computing. The accuracy of their calculations can easily be checked with a regular PC. In a paper published in Nature Physics, the scientists explain that it can be used to objectively verify claims of quantum superiority.
“We have created an interactive protocol that allows us demonstrate quantum superiority or to verify this claim with minimal expenditure of resources on classical computers. Researchers explained that their approach relies on cryptographic functions with difficult-to-detect teeth and quantum Bell’s inequalities.
A group of scientists from Google’s Quantum Artificial Intelligence Lab announced that they had achieved “quantum supremacy” in the autumn of 2019. The “unsolvable” problem generating random numbers with the Sycamore computer, created by Google and containing 53 superconducting qubits (qubits), was solved.
Two teams of Chinese physicists announced the “quantum superiority” achievement immediately. They were able to solve extremely complex mathematical problems with superconducting or photonic quantum machines. These breakthroughs have caused debate over whether such solving problems constitute “quantum supremacy”. Scientists are now looking at how to verify the operation of these computers.
Norman Yao, an assistant professor at University of California at Berkeley, led a group of American physicists who developed an unconventional approach to objectively prove “quantum superiority” and verify such claims. This idea is based upon the application of quantum Physics to cryptographic algorithms.
Cryptographic equipment and software developers, including mathematicians, physicists and mathematicians, often use secret functions that are difficult to detect teeth to encrypt data. Scientists call mathematical expressions that cannot be reversed, and so they can find the key to encoded data.
Yao and his collaborators discovered that the most challenging part of these mathematical algorithms can be replaced with Bell’s physical equations. These are fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. This allows for similar calculations on a quantum computer, which can be used to prove “quantum supremacy”.
Scientists have developed a test system to do this. It sends data to a quantum computing device, which then calculates cryptographic functions. These calculations can be quickly verified with a standard computer. The successful completion of these calculations confirms the quantum nature and objectively proves “quantum superiority,” Yao and his coworkers.